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Low dose imaging

The efficiency of ptychography compared to STEM methods raises the question of how it performs compared to HRTEM, the current choice for imaging the most beam sensitive materials such as proteins.

graphene Simulated HRTEM and ptychographic imaging of graphene. Ptychography can provide a significantly clearer image than HRTEM phase contrast. Ptychography is far more resilient to temporal incoherence than conventional and spherical aberration optimized phase contrast imaging in HRTEM, resulting in significantly greater clarity at a given dose.

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“High Dose Efficiency Atomic Resolution Imaging via Electron Ptychography”, T. J. Pennycook, G. T. Martinez, P. D. Nellist, J. C. Meyer, Ultramicroscopy 196 (2019), p. 131.